Pollutants in the environment are collectively referred to as substances that are emitted into the atmosphere, waters, and soil in the production and life of human beings and can cause environmental pollution and have a negative impact on humans. These substances include: pesticides, sludge, hydrocarbons, synthetic polymers, heavy metals, radioactive elements, and so on. Microbes can degrade and transform metals and radioactive materials. Organic substances such as hydrocarbons, organic pesticides, and synthetic polymers are the main targets for microbial degradation.
Custom biodegradable foam supplier to share with you: Degradation generally refers to the reduction of the number of carbon atoms and molecular weight in organic compounds. There is a view that the degraded material will eventually be decomposed into water and carbon dioxide.
Biodegradation is: the material in the body through the role of lysis, enzymolysis, cell phagocytosis, etc., during the process of tissue growth, continuously discharged from the body, the repaired tissue completely replaces the position of the implanted material, and there is no residue in the body Nature. Known as the material's biodegradability.
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The research content of biodegradation includes: the degradation ability of the organism itself, the rule of the difficulty of degradation of organic matter, the degradation mechanism of water-soluble organic matter and water-insoluble organic matter, and the way of biodegradation.
The degree of difficulty in biodegrading organic matter depends on the characteristics of the organism itself, and is also related to the structural characteristics of the organic matter. The simple structure is generally easy to degrade.
1. Aliphatic and cyclic compounds such as aromatic hydrocarbon compounds are easily degraded.
2. Unsaturated aliphatic compounds, such as (propenyl and carbonyl compounds), are generally degradable. Organic matter on the main molecular chain, in addition to carbon elements, there are other elements (such as ethers, tertiary amines, etc.), which will reduce degradation performance.
3. The molecular weight of organic compounds has a significant effect on biodegradability. Polymers and composites are resistant to biodegradation. It is mainly because microorganisms are not easy to access and destroy sensitive reaction bonds inside the compound molecule.
4. For organic matter with substituted groups, the diversity of its isomers may affect the degradation performance. Such as primary alcohols, secondary alcohols are very easy to degrade, while tertiary alcohols have a tendency to resist degradation.
5. Adding or removing a functional group will affect the degradability of organic matter.
The ability of dissolved organic matter to diffuse through cell walls is determined by its molecular weight and its solubility in water. Currently, molecules with less than twelve carbon atoms are generally considered to enter cells. The solubility of organic matter is determined by its hydrophilic or hydrophobic group. When the hydrophilic group is more dominant than the hydrophobic group, the solubility is greater. When the metabolism of water-soluble organic alcohols begins, the hydroxyl groups are oxidized to form acids. In biological metabolism, acids are activated intermediates, and a portion of the acids are metabolized to carbon dioxide and water. The energy generated converts the remaining acid into the constituents of the original material.
Water-insoluble organic substances have a hydrophobic group that is superior to hydrophilic groups. The metabolic reaction is limited to the interface between water and hydrocarbons that microorganisms can contact. The hydrophobic group at the end is dissolved into the fat part of the cell for oxidation reaction. Organic matter is gradually drawn into the cell from the interface of water and hydrocarbons in this form and is metabolized. The limited contact surface between microorganisms and water-insoluble organic matter reduces the metabolic rate of water-insoluble organic matter. Carbon branches in organic matter have a certain effect on metabolism, and carbon branches can prevent the metabolic rate of microorganisms. This is because the microorganism's own enzyme needs to adapt to the structure of organic matter, and it is cleaved at its molecular branches. The simplest molecule is metabolized first. The more complicated the metabolic steps, the slower the biochemical reaction.
The simplest of these molecules is metabolized first. The more complex the metabolic steps, the slower the biochemical reaction.
The speed of metabolism is related to the ability of microorganisms to adapt to organic matter and the concentration of enzymes in cells. Among chemical reactions, the nuclear reaction is the fastest, followed by the inorganic reaction, which is also very fast and complete. Organic reactions are much slower and the reaction is not complete, and often requires the presence of conditions such as temperature and catalysts to proceed. In the final analysis, biochemical reactions, such as microbial degradation, include the processes of enzymatic, body fluid dissolution, and bacterial engulfing. The traditional biochemical reaction is relatively long. There is a large gap in microbial degradability. For example, the strongest fungal strain (oleophilic microorganisms) after 15 days of liquid shaking culture, the degradation rate of petroleum products is about 39%.
Due to the various types of microbial metabolism, almost all organic matter in nature can be degraded and transformed by microorganisms. Microorganisms can produce new spontaneous mutant strains due to their small size, strong reproduction ability, strong adaptability, and easy mutation. It can also generate new enzymes with new metabolic functions through the formation of inducing enzymes to adapt to the new environment and new substances. It can not only degrade traditional organic substances, but also degrade and transform those "unfamiliar" compounds. It turns out that microorganisms have great potential to degrade and transform matter, especially for organic matter.
There are various methods for measuring the degradability of organic matter. But all take a long time. The most time-consuming is the selection and cultivation of bacteria. Secondly, the process of biochemical reaction is also a slow process. And the degree of completion is difficult to define and difficult to express quantitatively. Therefore, the determination of biodegradability cannot be used for rapid identification of biodegradability of organic matter. Lubricating oil is one of the important petrochemical products. It has a wide range of applications in various industries such as industrial and civil, but it also flows into the environment very easily, whether it is water or soil, it has a great impact. Some countries in the world have legislation to ban the use of lubricants with substandard biodegradability in environmentally sensitive areas. With reference to the European Union's CEC-L-33-A-93 standard, China has established a "biodegradability" assessment method for lubricants suitable for use in China. , Synthetic hydrocarbon oil, mineral oil, hydrogenated mineral oil, polyether, fluorocarbon oil and silicone oil and other base oils of biodegradability.
The biodegradability of lubricating oil is related to its structure and composition:
The biodegradability of lubricating oils with similar structures decreases as their molecular weight increases.
Aromatic compounds are less biodegradable than their corresponding aliphatic compounds.
As the degree of branching of the carbon chain increases, its biodegradability decreases.